Atherosclerosis is a major cardiovascular disease involving accumulations of lipids, white blood cells, and other materials on the inside of artery walls. Since the calcification found in the advanced stage of atherosclerosis dramatically enhances the mechanical properties of the plaque, restoring the original lumen of the artery remains a challenge.
Calcification  forms among vascular smooth muscle cells of the surrounding muscular layer, specifically in the muscle cells adjacent to atheromas and on the surface of atheroma plaques and tissue. In time, as cells die, this leads to extracellular calcium deposits between the muscular wall and outer portion of the atheromatous plaques.
Complications of advanced atherosclerosis are chronic, slowly progressive and cumulative. Most commonly, soft plaque suddenly ruptures, causing the formation of a thrombus that will rapidly slow or stop blood flow, leading to death of the tissues fed by the artery in approximately 5 minutes. This catastrophic event is called an infarction. One of the most common recognized scenarios is called coronary thrombosis of a coronary artery, causing a heart attack. The same process in an artery to the brain is commonly called stroke. Another common scenario in very advanced disease is claudication from insufficient blood supply to the legs, typically caused by a combination of both stenosis and aneurysmal segments narrowed with clots.
Modern medicine use high-speed rotational atherectomy, when performed with an ablating grinder to remove the plaque, produces much better results in the treatment of calcified plaque compared to other methods .
However, the high-speed rotation of the Rotablator commercial rotational atherectomy device produces microcavitation, which should be avoided because of the serious complications it can cause. This research involves the development of a high-speed rotational ablation tool that does not generate microcavitation .
Future nanomedical devices can avoid this problem and also they can make atherectomy non-invasive and simply procedure.
Medical nanorobots called “nano” due to size of their components. These tiny artificial nanoelectromechanical systems will change 90% of traditional medicine treatments, make them fast and more efficient.
Perhaps the best-characterized mechanical nanocomputer is Drexler’s rod logic design. In this design, one sliding rod with a knob intersects a second knobbed sliding rod at right angles to the first. Depending upon the position of the first rod, the second may be free to move, or unable to move. This simple blocking interaction serves as the basis for logical operations . The same CPU logic can be used in anti-atherosclerosis nanorobot.
The nanorobot has magnetic markers – “cores” that can monitor its position inside the blood system with high precision. That is why physicians can operate the nanorobot in real-time inside the bloodstream and physicians can control all the nanorobot’s main functions by a remote monitor (like MRI imaging).
With the help of modern monitoring system physicians can control nanorobot’s movements and plaque destruction in real-time. It can be possible due to magnetic markers in each medical nanomachine, which will be unique for every device
In this way calcifications will be removed without surgery or another complex medical procedure. Unfortunately, this nanorobotic concept or equal medical treatment will be available only in next decade with proper nanotechnology development.
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 Bertazzo, S. et al. Nano-analytical electron microscopy reveals fundamental insights into human cardiovascular tissue calcification. Nature Materials 12, 576-583 (2013).
 Kim MH, Kim HJ, Kim NN, Yoon HS, Ahn SH. “A rotational ablation tool for calcified atherosclerotic plaque removal”, Biomed Microdevices. 2011 Dec;13(6):963-71. doi: 10.1007/s10544-011-9566-y.
 Robert A. Freitas Jr., Nanomedicine, Volume I: Basic Capabilities, Landes Bioscience, Georgetown, TX, 1999